Saturday, June 14, 2008
Another volcano eruption for Vanuatu
Moderate quake 5.8 magnitude on richter scaleTuesday, June 10, 2008 at 03:13:35 PM at epicenter 45 km South West of PORT-VILA, Efate, Vanuatu.There is no immediate reports of casuality or damge done by this tremblor.Official termed the shocks moderate but still to verify any loss of human life or damage done by this current natural catastrophe.Vanuatu sits on the Pacific
Ring of Fire,the known earthquake fault lines and volcanoes stretching from Chile up through the Aleutian Islands and down the western Pacific past Vanuatu to New Zealand.
Republic of VanuatuVanuatu is a 'Y' shaped archipelago of 83 islands. It is located about 1,750 kilometers east of Australia. Fiji lies to the east, New Caledonia to the south, and the Solomon Islands to the northwest, all within the area of the South Pacific called Melanesia.The two largest islands, Espiritu Santo (or Santo) and Malakula, account for nearly one-half of the total land area. They are volcanic, with sharp mountain peaks, plateaus, and lowlands.
The larger islands of the remaining half also are volcanic but are overlaid with limestone formations; the smaller ones are coral and limestone. Volcanic activity is common with an ever-present danger of a major eruption, the last of which occurred in 1945. Rainfall averages about 2,360 millimeters (94 in.) per year but can be as high as 4,000 millimeters (160 in.) in the northern islands.The population of Vanuatu is 94% indigenous Melanesian.
About 33,700 live in the capital, Port Vila. Another 10,700 live in Luganville (or Santo Town) on Espiritu Santo. The remainder live in rural areas. Approximately 2,000 ni-Vanuatu live and work in New Caledonia. Although local pidgin, called Bislama, is the national language, English and French also are official languages. Indigenous Melanesians speak 105 local languages.Christianity has had a profound influence on ni-Vanuatu society, and an estimated 90% of the population is affiliated with one of the Christian denominations.
The largest denominations are Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, and Anglican. John Frum, a syncretic sect, also is important on Tanna Island.The prehistory of Vanuatu is obscure; archaeological evidence supports the commonly held theory that peoples speaking Austronesian languages first came to the islands some 4,000 years ago. Pottery fragments have been found dating back to 1300-1100 B.C.
The first island in the Vanuatu group discovered by Europeans was Espiritu Santo, when in 1606 the Portuguese explorer, Pedro Fernandez De Quiros, spied what he thought was a southern continent. Europeans did not return until 1768, when Louis Antoine de Bougainville rediscovered the islands. In 1774, Captain Cook named the islands the New Hebrides, a name that lasted until independence.In 1825, trader Peter Dillon's discovery of sandalwood on the island of Erromango began a rush that ended in 1830 after a clash between immigrant Polynesian workers and indigenous Melanesians.
During the 1860s, planters in Australia, Fiji, New Caledonia, and the Samoa Islands, in need of laborers, encouraged a long-term indentured labor trade called "blackbirding." At the height of the labor trade, more than one-half the adult male population of several of the Islands worked abroad. Fragmentary evidence indicates that the current population of Vanuatu is greatly reduced compared to pre-contact times.It was at this time that missionaries, both Catholic and Protestant, arrived on the islands.
Settlers also came, looking for land on which to establish cotton plantations. When international cotton prices collapsed, they switched to coffee, cocoa, bananas, and, most successfully, coconuts. Initially, British subjects from Australia made up the majority, but the establishment of the Caledonian Company of the New Hebrides in 1882 soon tipped the balance in favor of French subjects.
By the turn of the century, the French outnumbered the British two to one.The jumbling of French and British interests in the islands brought petitions for one or another of the two powers to annex the territory. In 1906, however, France and the United Kingdom agreed to administer the islands jointly.
Called the British-French Condominium, it was a unique form of government, with separate governmental systems that came together only in a joint court. Melanesians were barred from acquiring the citizenship of either power.
Challenges to this form of government began in the early 1940s. The arrival of Americans during World War II, with their informal demeanor and relative wealth, was instrumental in the rise of nationalism in the islands. The belief in a mythical messianic figure named John Frum was the basis for an indigenous cargo cult (a movement attempting to obtain industrial goods through magic) promising Melanesian deliverance.
Today, John Frum is both a religion and a political party with a member in Parliament.The first political party was established in the early 1970s and originally was called the New Hebrides National Party. One of the founders was Father Walter Lini, who later became Prime Minister. Renamed the Vanua'aku Pati in 1974, the party pushed for independence; in 1980, the Republic of Vanuatu was created.Cause of EarthquakeThe quake phenomenon is explained stress on the tectonic plates that make up the Earth's crust.
Tectonic plates are in constant vibration plus constant motion caused by currents in the Earth's liquid mantle. Earth which is composed of more than 70 % of hydrospeher which is water.This earth with watery ballon rotating on its axis and revolving round the sun in solar system make it vibrate to produce waves.This waves are the natural vibration moving in horizontal direction vertical and upwards a cause of total life in the world.
These continous vibes makes the Tectonic plates edges grind against each other, creating frictional stress. Frictional movement between two surface creates load of energy and the buoyancy of hydrosphere causes plates to relieve energy inform of waves and heat.Waves is termed Tsunami and heat Volcanic erruptions.
The continous cumulative energy between the plates increases until the strain is released by a violent displacement of the Earth's crust. The resulting waves of energy, called seismic waves, are radiated through the ground and cause an earthquake of the type we feel on the surface.
Earth's atmosphere and hydrosphere developed from the degassing (loss of gaseous elements such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen) of the early-formed core and mantle during this volcanic activity. In the present, abundant gases are still released from the Earth during volcanic eruptions and these are mainly composed of water (77%), carbon dioxide (12%), sulfur dioxide (7%), and nitrogen (3%), with minor amounts of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, sulfur, chlorine and argon.
The most powerful earthquakes, called 'mega-thrust' quakes, can exceed 9.0 on the Richter Scale and cause enormous damage around the world. A mega-thrust quake was the cause of the tsunami that ravaged much of South East Asia in 2004.